How to Understand the Transformation of Western Modern Art

3. prosince 2016 v 5:06
In the first half of the 20th century, Western modern art has undergone great changes in concept. Compared with traditional art, this change is mainly manifested in the following aspects.
2-weeping willow
1.From imitation reproduction to the subjective spirit of the performance

For centuries, the truth of Western minds is the visual, objective world that surrounds them, and the duty of art is to imitate the reproduction of these real, objective objects. This concept originated in ancient Greece, Aristotle had talked about the imitation of human instinct. As a system of aesthetics, it is established in the Renaissance. Renaissance also improved the concept of the true to the perspective, anatomy, light and shade and other scientific laws to develop and enrich the reproduction of the objective object, describing the real artistic techniques. Artists who depict people, landscapes, still lifes, and all visible objects, imitate the reproduction of the object as an unshakable foundation for painting and sculpture. In their view, the art does not imitate the objective object also what art!

The idea of ??imitating the object of objectivity was suddenly challenged by the nineteenth century. The emergence and popularization of photography has posed a considerable threat to the art of imitating the realism, resulting in the artist's sense of crisis. Just at this time, the Japanese Ukiyo-e and Chinese painting art spread to the West, the expression of oriental art, a sense of plane to Western artists vision, they see, the original non-real, flat and freehand Oriental art charming! Imitation of realism is only an artistic concept, break through the traditional concept of art, art will move toward a broader world. Cezanne, Van Gogh and other post-impressionist painter first broke through the shackles of this traditional concept, emphasizing the subjective spirit of the performance. By the twentieth century, this concept has been further developed. Photography, film, television and other modern means of the emergence of art to make people realize that the object is no longer reflect and record the object of the only visual means. Nietzsche, Bergson, Freud and others the impact of the philosophical point of view and doctrine, so that people's thinking from the objective world of attention turned to the inner world of interest, found the world's most profound mysterious things The original is the human heart. Imitation of realism depicts only the objective reality, the performance of subjective feelings of the painting depicts the true heart. This spiritual reality, it is a new field of artistic expression and new world. Thus, the performance of the true heart, the performance of pure subjective feelings, become the first half of the 20th century the most groundbreaking point of view. Fauvism, expressionism, surrealism and other schools of the emergence of this view is the specific practice of art.

2. Abandon the unity of the absolute beauty of the standard

Traditional Western art uses imitation realism to reflect the objective object. Artists use keen observation to describe various real images in nature. No matter what style and technique they adopt, neoclassicism, romanticism or realism, they create Works of art are mostly figurative, linked to the objective world. The audience in the appreciation of these works are always a natural object as a reference to compare, understanding and understanding of works, with the object is similar to the evaluation of the works. This realistic work can be read and accepted by everyone. So from the ancient Greek to the 19th century to imitate the development of realistic art for 2000 years of history, people gradually establish a unified, absolute beauty of the standard, which is true and beautiful. True based on objective reality, graceful is based on the important position of classical art in the history of Western art. This real and beautiful art standards, in people's minds are extremely far-reaching influence.

After the end of the 19th century, the Impressionists broke the imitation of the shackles of realism, in front of artists to show a broader world, in addition to depicting the real outside of art, but also the performance of the inner world, self-expression, performance of new ideas; Beautiful, but also the performance of grotesque, ugly, painful and uneasy. Although the objective reality is touching, the real mind may be more enlightening force. Although the beautiful people indulge in indifference, ugly can also make life memorable, food for thought. It is precisely because of ugly intervention, art space and vision was greatly expanded, artistic tendency is no longer a one-dimensional, one-dimensional, aesthetic, but beauty and ugliness, good and evil relative, joys and sorrows symbiotic. Leonardo da Vinci's "Mona Lisa" with its elegant lofty immortality, Picasso's "Guernica" can also expose the war for its ugly and cruel down through the ages.

Since the art to give up depicting the objective truth, is committed to the performance of human inner world, and each person's heart and emotions are vastly different, elusive. The traditional art that unified and absolute standards will naturally lose its meaning. How can imagine an everlasting standard to evaluate the different gods Fengshen mind? If the viewer is still in the position of the traditional art view, he can not understand or even understand the modern art with the traditional art standard. The reason why many people fail to understand modern art is that they still judge modern art whether they are similar to objective objects and whether works are beautiful or not. They still look at modern art from the standpoint and standard of traditional art. There will be puzzled or incompatible feeling.

3. Emphasize the aesthetic function of art and pure visual

Traditional Western art is very important to the cognitive function of art, pay attention to its theme and content, the art of recording images and events as the best means. In the medieval times when few people were reading and reading, painting and sculpture became the visual language of the Bible. In those episodic and narrative works, art has assumed part of the function of literature. Especially in China, due to the profound influence of Soviet art in the past, people pay more attention to the theme and content of the art works. When people appreciate a work of art, the first question is what these people are doing? What is the theme of this work? As to whether the works are moving people, the aesthetic aspects of their artistic expression of how the problem is rarely concerned about the people.

Since the second half of the 19th century, Western artists have paid more and more attention to the pure visual and aesthetic effects of art. In their view, each category of art should have its own unique function. Literature resorted to people's ideas, music appeal to people's hearing, art is mainly resorted to people's vision. The responsibility of the artist should be to explore the form of color, line, block, composition and other factors, rather than painting, sculpture narrative story. Therefore, the artist began to emphasize the pure visual and formal sense of art, abandoned its literary and story. Impressionist painter is the pursuit of artistic aesthetic function of the first pioneers, Claude Monet, Renoir and others in the selection of subjects and more from the light and color and other forms of painting factors, rarely concerned about their painting themes and plot, no wonder Monet Will tirelessly depict a haystack or a church.

The first half of the 20th century to abandon the plot of the story, the pursuit of pure visual aesthetic function has become a common artistic thinking. For example, many of Matisse's works pursue pure color effects, and Kandinsky's abstract works pursue color, line expression and musicality. This modern work, for those who used to see the story and the theme of the traditional arts such as the audience, the natural do not understand is difficult to accept.

4. The value of art lies in discovery and creation

Different times, due to social and philosophical differences, people have different artistic values ??and values. From ancient Greece to the 19th century, under the guidance of the Western rational spirit produced a corresponding view of art. This concept of art as a depiction and reflection of the visual reality of the world. Reflecting the lofty ideals of mankind, the means of recording events and images, depending on the artist to have considerable artistic skills and special talents of the characters. Therefore, the value of traditional art is that it reflects the reality of the breadth and authenticity, is the artist's aesthetic taste and skill level. However, with the change of the times, the rational spirit no longer resides in the position of absolute authority, life philosophy, irrational spirit, psychoanalysis theory and so on to challenge it. Moreover, the rapid development of modern society. People's way of life, awareness, ideas, etc. are constantly changing. Since everything is changing, the concept of art is no exception. This is like the human marriage system, due to differences in social patterns and economic basis, the marriage system from the group marriage, dual marriage, polygamy has been developed to today's monogamy. The value of art lies in reflecting the breadth and depth of reality. It lies in the skill of the artist, and the artistic concept under the modern spirit will naturally change greatly.

After the emergence of modern art, the concept of art greatly expanded, people no longer confined to the skills and imitation of reality, and in the artistic concepts, artistic means of expression, artistic language and other fields to explore creation. At this time, people realize that the most valuable thing in art is not lies in skills and content, but in constantly discover and innovation. Once this innovative point of view is established, people's creativity is like a long suppressed volcano erupted. Many modern artists abandoned traditional art techniques, painting methods and tool materials, boldly opened up new media fields, adopted new means of expression, or even completely broke through the traditional concept of painting or sculpture, and modern art appeared in a new and varied appearance. In front of the audience.
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In summary, modern art has undergone great changes in the concept, we know and understand the Western modern art, we must change the concept. If a person always stand in the position of traditional art to look at modern art, it will never understand it.

Western modern art is the product of Western society, the process of industrialization, philosophy and modern life. It has been produced since the end of the 19th century, has been enduring for more than 100 years, showing that its existence has a certain rationality. We can not simply dismiss it as rotten, nonsense, should not be blindly affirmed and appreciated, the best way is to understand, understand, and then make judgments and evaluation.


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